Monday, September 20, 2010
Intensified Chemotherapy and Dose-Reduced Involved-Field Radiotherapy in Patients With Early Unfavorable Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Final Analysis of the German Hodgkin Study Group HD11 Trial [Hematologic Malignancies]
This was a 2x2 trial, looking at escalating chemotherapy (comparing the standard ABVD to BEACOPP), and de-escalating RT (30Gy to 20Gy). Unfortunately, the answer was not clear cut, with both of the comparisons being negative (i.e. BEACOPP was not superior to ABVD, and 20Gy was not "non-inferior" to 30Gy). Of course the temptation is to the look at each of the four arms individually - in which it was observed that the escalation of BEACOPP may conterbalance the descalation of 20Gy, but in the end, one must look on this as a unplanned subgroup analysis.
Combined-modality treatment consisting of four to six cycles of chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) is the standard of care for patients with early unfavorable Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). It is unclear whether treatment results can be improved with more intensive chemotherapy and which radiation dose needs to be applied.Patients and Methods
Patients age 16 to 75 years with newly diagnosed early unfavorable HL were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial design to one of the following treatment arms: four cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) + 30 Gy of IFRT; four cycles of ABVD + 20 Gy of IFRT; four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPPbaseline) + 30 Gy of IFRT; or four cycles of BEACOPPbaseline + 20 Gy of IFRT.Results
With a total of 1,395 patients included, the freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) at 5 years was 85.0%, overall survival was 94.5%, and progression-free survival was 86.0%. BEACOPPbaseline was more effective than ABVD when followed by 20 Gy of IFRT (5-year FFTF difference, 5.7%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 11.3%). However, there was no difference between BEACOPPbaseline and ABVD when followed by 30 Gy of IFRT (5-year FFTF difference, 1.6%; 95% CI, –3.6% to 6.9%). Similar results were observed for the radiotherapy question; after four cycles of BEACOPPbaseline, 20 Gy was not inferior to 30 Gy (5-year FFTF difference, –0.8%; 95% CI, –5.8% to 4.2%), whereas inferiority of 20 Gy cannot be excluded after four cycles of ABVD (5-year FFTF difference, –4.7%; 95% CI, –10.3% to 0.8%). Treatment-related toxicity occurred more often in the arms with more intensive therapy.Conclusion
Moderate dose escalation using BEACOPPbaseline did not significantly improve outcome in early unfavorable HL. Four cycles of ABVD should be followed by 30 Gy of IFRT.
The current standard therapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the setting of R-CHOP chemotherapy is not well reported. This retrospective analysis is an attempt to clarify this role.Patients and Methods
Subjects were 469 patients with histologically confirmed DLBCL treated between January 2001 and December 2007. Variables including age, sex, Ann Arbor disease stage, bulky disease status, standardized uptake values (SUVs) on positron emission tomography (PET), International Prognostic Index (IPI), and Ki67 staining (proliferation).Results
Of 469 patients, 190 (40.5%) had stage I or II disease and 279 (59.5%) had stage III or IV disease, 327 (70%) had at least six cycles of R-CHOP, and 142 (30.2%) had involved-field RT (dose, 30 to 39.6 Gy) after complete response to chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 8 to 85 months). Multivariate analysis showed that RT (P < .0001), IPI score (P = .001), response to therapy (P = .001), use of six to eight cycles of R-CHOP (P < .001), and combined presence (P = .006) or absence (P = .025) of high Ki67, high PET SUV, and bulky disease influenced overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Matched-pair analyses of patients who received six to eight cycles of R-CHOP with stage I or II disease (44 pairs) and all stages (74 pairs) indicated that RT improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52 and 0.29, respectively) and PFS (HR, 0.45 and 0.24, respectively) compared with no RT.Conclusion
This study showed significant improvements in OS and PFS among patients who received consolidation RT after R-CHOP chemotherapy for DLBCL."
Tuesday, September 14, 2010
Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Folinic Acid vs Gemcitabine Following Pancreatic Cancer Resection: A Randomized Controlled Trial [Original Contribution]
Context Adjuvant fluorouracil has been shown to be of benefit for patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine is known to be the most effective agent in advanced disease as well as an effective agent in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.
Objective To determine whether fluorouracil or gemcitabine is superior in terms of overall survival as adjuvant treatment following resection of pancreatic cancer.
Design, Setting, and Patients The European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC)-3 trial, an open-label, phase 3, randomized controlled trial conducted in 159 pancreatic cancer centers in Europe, Australasia, Japan, and Canada. Included in ESPAC-3 version 2 were 1088 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who had undergone cancer resection; patients were randomized between July 2000 and January 2007 and underwent at least 2 years of follow-up.
Interventions Patients received either fluorouracil plus folinic acid (folinic acid, 20 mg/m2, intravenous bolus injection, followed by fluorouracil, 425 mg/m2 intravenous bolus injection given 1-5 days every 28 days) (n = 551) or gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 intravenous infusion once a week for 3 of every 4 weeks) (n = 537) for 6 months.
Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome measure was overall survival; secondary measures were toxicity, progression-free survival, and quality of life.
Results Final analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis after a median of 34.2 (interquartile range, 27.1-43.4) months' follow-up after 753 deaths (69%). Median survival was 23.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.1-25.0) months for patients treated with fluorouracil plus folinic acid and 23.6 (95% CI, 21.4-26.4) months for those treated with gemcitabine (21 = 0.7; P = .39; hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.81-1.08]). Seventy-seven patients (14%) receiving fluorouracil plus folinic acid had 97 treatment-related serious adverse events, compared with 40 patients (7.5%) receiving gemcitabine, who had 52 events (P < .001). There were no significant differences in either progression-free survival or global quality-of-life scores between the treatment groups.
Conclusion Compared with the use of fluorouracil plus folinic acid, gemcitabine did not result in improved overall survival in patients with completely resected pancreatic cancer.
Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00058201"
Wednesday, September 1, 2010
Context Mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are widely used by carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations to reduce their risks of breast and ovarian cancer.
Objective To estimate risk and mortality reduction stratified by mutation and prior cancer status.
Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, multicenter cohort study of 2482 women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations ascertained between 1974 and 2008. The study was conducted at 22 clinical and research genetics centers in Europe and North America to assess the relationship of risk-reducing mastectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy with cancer outcomes. The women were followed up until the end of 2009.
Main Outcomes Measures Breast and ovarian cancer risk, cancer-specific mortality, and overall mortality.
Results No breast cancers were diagnosed in the 247 women with risk-reducing mastectomy compared with 98 women of 1372 diagnosed with breast cancer who did not have risk-reducing mastectomy. Compared with women who did not undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, women who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy had a lower risk of ovarian cancer, including those with prior breast cancer (6% vs 1%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.59) and those without prior breast cancer (6% vs 2%; HR, 0.28 [95% CI, 0.12-0.69]), and a lower risk of first diagnosis of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers (20% vs 14%; HR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.41-0.96]) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (23% vs 7%; HR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16-0.82]). Compared with women who did not undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy was associated with lower all-cause mortality (10% vs 3%; HR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.26-0.61]), breast cancer–specific mortality (6% vs 2%; HR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.26-0.76]), and ovarian cancer–specific mortality (3% vs 0.4%; HR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.06-0.80]).
Conclusions Among a cohort of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, the use of risk-reducing mastectomy was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer; risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was associated with a lower risk of ovarian cancer, first diagnosis of breast cancer, all-cause mortality, breast cancer–specific mortality, and ovarian cancer–specific mortality."